DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/oncology.1.1.2018.155375

Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer: frequency, clinical and morphological features, role in the choice of treatment

D.A. Shapochka, A.A. Seleznev, O.N. Sulaieva

Abstract


Background. The purpose was to evaluate the frequency, clinical and morphological features of microsatellite instability (MSI) in colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Ukrainian population. Materials and methods. The study included 351 patients with CRC. Two methods were used to diagnose MSI: 1) detection of the instability in the microsatellite loci using polymerase chain reaction; 2) immunohistochemically, by detecting the deficiency of the mismatch repair system proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2; Dako). In addition, some patients were tested for KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations by real­time polymerase chain reaction. Results. It was shown that the frequency of MSI among Ukrainian patients with CRC was 14.2 %. The frequency of MSI­H status was significantly higher in men (25.35 %) than in women (10 %) (P = 0.04). The MSI­H status was associated with younger age (P = 0.002) in men. In addition, MSI­H CRC was more often associated with special histological types of CRC, inflammatory infiltration and higher rate of BRAF mutation (P = 0.03). Although almost half of the MSI­H CRC showed high grade, distant metastases rate was significantly lower comparing with MSI (17.4 vs. 52.9 %, P = 0.001) regardless of gender. Conclusions. Screening of patients with CRC on MSI will allow the identification of additional candidates for immunotherapy in order to improve treatment efficacy and outcomes.


Keywords


colorectal cancer; microsatellite instability; immunotherapy

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