Practical oncology http://oncology.zaslavsky.com.ua/ <div align="center"><table id="table1" style="border-collapse: collapse;" width="100%" border="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" align="center" valign="top"> <b> <span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Verdana"> Occupational research specialized peer-reviewed publication for oncologists, surgeons and other specialty doctors reported on current issues on diagnosis and treatment of oncology disorders from a scientific and practical standpoint.</span></b></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" align="center" valign="top"><hr noshade="noshade" size="1" /></td></tr><tr> <td align="left" valign="top" width="19%"> <img style="border: 0px; cursor: default; color: #000000; font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 10px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: -webkit-left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff;" src="/public/journals/614/journalThumbnail_uk_UA.jpg" alt="" width="250" height="375" hspace="10" /></td> <td align="left" valign="top" width="80%"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana;"> <strong>The founder:<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></strong></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana;">Zaslavsky O.Yu.</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana;"><br /> <strong>Publisher:</strong><span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>Zaslavsky O.Yu.<br /> <strong>Language of edition:</strong><span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>Ukrainian, English, Russian.</span><p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana;"> <strong>Registration Certificate:<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></strong></span><strong><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Verdana">Registration Certificate:</span></strong><span class="apple-converted-space"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Verdana">&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Verdana">КВ</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Verdana"> № 23434-13274</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Verdana">Р</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Verdana">. Issued by the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine 22.06.2018.</span></p><p><strong style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"> Publication frequency:<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></strong><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;">4 times per year.<br /> <strong>Founded: </strong>November 2018</span></p><p><strong style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;">ISSN<span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana;"> 2663-3272 (print)<br /> <span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;">ISSN</span> 2663-3280 (online)</span></strong></p><strong style="color: #000000; font-family: Verdana; font-size: 13.3333px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: -webkit-left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff;"> <span lang="EN-GB"> <a style="color: blue; text-underline: single; text-decoration: none;" href="http://www.mif-ua.com/"> http://www.mif-ua.com/</a></span></strong></td></tr></tbody></table></div> <table id="table2" width="100%" border="0"><tr><td valign="top" width="98%"><hr></td></tr><tr> <td valign="top" width="98%" align="center"> <a target="_blank" style="text-decoration: none; color: rgb(10, 31, 84); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 12px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: center; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background: rgb(251, 251, 243)" href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=2663-3280"> <img src="http://www.mif-ua.com/media/uploads/index/cr.jpg" alt="" width="100" height="37"></a>&nbsp;<a target="_blank" style="text-decoration: none; color: rgb(47, 75, 146); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 12px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: center; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(251, 251, 243);" href="https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=n2:2663-3272&qt=advanced&dblist=638"><img src="http://www.mif-ua.com/media/uploads/index/w-c.jpg" alt="" width="100" height="37"></a>&nbsp;<a target="_blank" style="text-decoration: none; color: rgb(47, 75, 146); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 12px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: center; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(251, 251, 243);" href="https://scholar.google.com.ua/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0,5&q=2663-3280&btnG="><img src="http://www.mif-ua.com/media/uploads/index/google.jpg" alt="" width="100" height="37"></a>&nbsp;<a href="https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?type=all&lookfor=Практична+онкологія+2663-3272&ling=1&oaboost=1&name=&thes=&refid=dcresen&newsearch=1" target="_blank"><img src="http://www.mif-ua.com/media/uploads/index/base.jpg" alt="" width="100" height="37"></a> <a href="https://sfdora.org/" target="_blank"> <img src="http://www.mif-ua.com/media/uploads/index/dora.jpg" alt="" width="100" height="37"></a></td></tr></table> en-US <p>Our edition uses the copyright terms of <strong>Creative Commons</strong> for open access journals.</p><p>Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:</p><ol><li>The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</strong></a>, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.</li><li>Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.</li><li>The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.</li><li>The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.</li><li>The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.</li><li>The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.</li><li>The rights to the article are deemed transferred by the authors to the edition (the publisher) since the moment of the publication of the article in the printed or electronic version of journal. </li></ol> zotov.phd@gmail.com (Oleksii Zotov) onchullarisa@gmail.com (Оnchul Larisa) Thu, 19 Aug 2021 14:04:18 +0300 OJS 3.2.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Clinical significance of anticancer vaccines (literature review) http://oncology.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/238669 <p>During the past few decades, the advances in cancer immunotherapy have revived interest in the potential use of vaccines for the malignant tumor treatment. Tumor-associated antigens, which are abnormally expressed by tumor cells, are of decisive importance in the development of anticancer vaccines. Through the stimulation of immunological memory, therapeutic anticancer vaccines can result in long-term remission or healing patients. Therapeutic anticancer vaccines due to the potential safety, specificity and duration of effect can become an alternative to or increase the effectiveness of existing immunotherapies. This article presents data on the tumor antigen structure, characteristics of anticancer vaccines and the results of studies on the clinical efficacy of anticancer vaccines.</p> R.V. Liubota, Zh.P. Yakovets, R.I. Vereshchako, M.F. Anikusko, I.I. Liubota Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://oncology.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/238669 Thu, 19 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Cancer immunotherapy: current opportunities and perspectives http://oncology.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/238670 <p>Cancer immunotherapy is a relatively new and pro­mising method of treating neoplasms. Understanding the antigen-directed cytotoxicity of T-lymphocytes has become one of the central directions in involving the immune system in the fight against cancer. Basic research in this area has led to the invention of checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive T-cell therapy, and cancer vaccines. Cytokines can enhance the action of T-lymphocytes for their ability to directly stimulate effector and stromal cells in tumor focus and enhance recognition of tumor cells by cytotoxic effector cells. They were the first in cancer immunotherapy and remain relevant to this day. Today, immunotherapy is an effective treatment for most malignant tumors, including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, liver, stomach, bladder, cervical cancer, some types of breast cancer, lymphoma, etc. However, immunotherapy of some malignant tumors is ineffective, therefore, the development of new and improvement of existing immunotherapy agents is actively underway, and there is a hope that the indications for its use will expand. For this purpose, this review discusses the principles of action of various classes of immunotherapeutic anticancer agents, namely cytokines, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and adaptive T-cell therapy. The work highlights their indications, efficacy and toxicity from the use of each class of drugs, as well as the prospects for the development of immunotherapeutic anticancer drugs.</p> O.Yu. Nikolaeva, R.V. Liubota, O.S. Zotov, R.I. Vereshchako Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://oncology.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/238670 Thu, 19 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Urothelial cancer: population-based analysis of the problem in Ukraine http://oncology.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/238667 <p>The aim of this work was to conduct a population analysis on the basis of the National Cancer Registry with the primary goal: to determine the effectiveness of urothelial cancer treatment in Ukraine; and the secondary goal: to identify the main trends and approaches to therapy with an assessment of their impact on overall survival. <strong>Materials and methods.</strong> The design of the study was retrospective observational. The analysis was conducted based on the data of the National Cancer Registry from 2008 to 2020. A total of 12,698 patients with urothelial tumors of the upper urinary tract and bladder who underwent surgical treatment were analyzed. Statistical sampling was performed based on the creation of the most homogeneous groups of patients with bladder cancer (BC) and the upper urinary tract carcinoma (UUTc) who had the required number of notified parameters for further analysis. The primary objectives of the analysis were to determine: the average age of primary detection of the studied nosologies, level of detection depending on gender, frequency of diagnosis verification before surgery, extent of surgery, frequency of postoperative complications based on data on 30-day rehospitalization, the level of deviation of the principles for prophylactic medical patients’ examination from generally accepted recommendations. The secondary objective was to assess the cumulative survival of patients with urothelial tumors depending on the localization of the primary tumor and the type of surgery (organ-sparing or radical). <strong>Results.</strong> Organ-sparing treatment was more typical for BC, while radical treatment was performed in 15 % of patients with carcinomas. Organ-sparing treatment was more typical for UUTc (40 %). It should be noted that in this nosology it is accep­table for invasive forms of urothelial cancer. The level of 30-day hospita­lization was low in both pathologies, with a slightly greater advantage of UUTc. The level of complications is grade III according to the Clavien-Dindo classification, averaging 0.2 % for the entire pool of patients. For BC, the overall survival rates by stages were: I — 73 %, II — 49 %, III — 18 % and IV — 11 % (chi-square = 1,807.207; p = 0.000001). For UUTc, the levels of 5-year overall survival correspond to the literature data, but there is a significant negative tendency to decrease the latter after a ­10-year period for all stages (chi-square = 146.298; p = 0.000003). In Ukraine, organ-sparing treatment for UUTc was not inferior to radical nephroureterectomy in the context of 5-year survival (51.3 vs. 51 %; log-rank test). The obtained data testify in favor of the 15% advantage of the total survival of patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy at the premises of the National Cancer Institute (high volume center), compared to other regions of Ukraine. Levels of 5- and ­10-year survival in both nosologies were characterized by a statistically non-significant advantage of UUTc over BC of 7 %. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Superficial and locally advanced tumors are the most complex ones in the treatment of urothelial cancer of the bladder and upper urinary tract in Ukraine. Superficial tumors require the most radical surgeries and subsequent effective local treatment. Locally advanced tumors require a comprehensive approach to treatment, adequate systemic therapy influences the final indicators of overall survival. In cases of surgical resectability and preservation of renal function, UUTc requires organ-sparing treatment; this approach aims to increase creatinine clearance in patients before systemic chemotherapy and to reduce the likelihood of progression of comorbidities and associated mortality.</p> M.V. Pikul, E.O. Stakhovsky, O.A. Voylenko, O.E. Stakhovsky, Yu.V. Vitruk, O.A. Kononenko, S.L. Semko, B.O. Hrechko, D.O. Koshel, O.O. Karkych Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://oncology.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/238667 Thu, 19 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Neutropenia and management of cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic http://oncology.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/238668 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the management of patients with cancer. Due to the quarantine restrictions imposed to some extent around the world, it was necessary to modify treatment regimens by reducing the number of sessions of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, as well as by postponing surgery. The volume of cancer screening has also been reduced. All this, from our point of view, in the long run may not have a very positive effect on the course of treatment and prognosis of cancer. Therefore, doctors today are constantly faced with the task of maintaining the effectiveness of treatment of malignant neoplasms, on the one hand, and reducing the risk of coronavirus — on the other, because, according to many sources, cancer patients are at risk of adverse COVID-19 course. This is especially true for patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. In this article we wanted to demonstrate the latest approaches to the management of cancer patients in this difficult period. We also considered the options for wider use of granulocyte colony-sti­mulating factors to prevent neutropenia in the COVID-19 era. It is still controversy about this in the medical scientific community. Unfortunately, the data available today are not enough to make unambiguous statements about a particular patient management, but by analyzing the large number of publications made during the pandemic year, as well as updated National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, we were able to answer most of the questions that interest us.</p> O.V. Ponomariova, P.V. Petelskyi, A.S. Kasianenko, T.A. Horbatiuk, M.M. Nosko, N.V. Banakhevych, A.N. Kliusov, A.V. Kondratenko, A.V. Kapinos Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://oncology.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/238668 Thu, 19 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300